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Thursday, 31 December 2020

Standard 10 paper style according to the new model considering the situation of Corona Gujarati 2020-2021


Another dimension of style is with the size of companies that invest in mutual funds. Large-cap companies have high market capitalization, valued at over 10 10 billion. The market cap is taken by multiplying the share price by the number of shares remaining. Large-cap stocks usually have blue chip companies that are often identified by name. Small-cap stocks refer to stocks with market caps ranging from $ 300 million to 2 2 billion. These small companies make new and risky investments. Mid-cap stocks fill the gap between small and large-cap.

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Mutual funds can combine their strategy between the style of investment and the size of the company. For example, large-cap value funds will focus on large-cap companies that are in strong financial shape but have recently seen their share prices decline and will be placed in the upper left of the style box box (large and value). The opposite would be a fund that would invest in startup technology companies with the best growth potential: small-cap growth. Such mutual funds will be in the bottom right quarter (small and growth).

Fixed-income fund

The second largest group is the fixed income range. Fixed-income mutual funds focus on investments that pay a certain rate of return, such as government bonds, corporate bonds or other debt instruments. The idea is that the fund portfolio generates interest income, which it then gives to shareholders.

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Sometimes referred to as bond funds, these funds are often actively managed and attempt to purchase relatively low-value bonds to sell at a profit. These mutual funds pay higher returns than certificates of deposit and money market investments, but bond funds are not without risk. Because there are so many types of bonds, bond funds can change dramatically depending on where they are invested. For example, a fund that specializes in high-yield junk bonds is more risky than investing in government securities. Moreover, almost all bond funds are subject to interest rate risk, which means that if the rate rises, the value of the fund decreases.

Index funding

The second group, which has become extremely popular in the last few years, comes under the moniker "Index Funds". Their investment strategy is based on the belief that constantly trying to beat the market is very hard and often expensive. Therefore, the index fund manager buys stocks that are related to major market indexes such as the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA). This strategy requires less research from analysts and advisors, so it costs less to eat the returns before they are given to shareholders. These funds are mostly created with cost-sensitive investors in mind.

Balanced funding

The aim is to reduce the risk of exposure between asset classes. This type of fund is also known as asset allocation fund. There are two variations of such funds that are designed to serve the purpose of the investor.

Some funds are defined with a specific allocation strategy that is fixed, so the investor may have a predictable exposure to different asset categories. Other funds follow a dynamic allocation percentage strategy to meet the objectives of various investors. This may include changing market conditions, changing business cycles, or responding to changing phases of an investor's own life.

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While objectives are like balanced funds, dynamic allocation funds do not have to have a clear percentage of any asset class. The portfolio manager is therefore given the freedom to change the ratio of asset classes to maintain the integrity of the stated strategy of funding.

Money market funds

The money market includes safe (risk free), short-term debt instruments, mostly government treasury bills. This is a safe place to raise your money. You won't get significant returns, but you won't have to worry about losing your principal. The general return is slightly higher than the amount you received in a regular check or savings account and slightly lower than the average certificate of deposit (CD). Money market funds invest in ultra-safe assets, while during the 2008 financial crisis, some money market funds suffered losses, the share price of these funds, usually after earning $ 1, fell below that level and the book broke.



Income funds are named for their purpose: to provide current income on a fixed basis. The fund invests primarily in government and high-quality debt corporate debt, holding these bonds until maturity to provide interest sharing. While the fund may appreciate in holding value, the main purpose of this fund is to provide a steady cash flow to investors.

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